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Sahih Muslim

by Imam Muslim, translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqui

Volume: The Book of Marriage (Kitab Al-Nikah)

Marriage is a social institution as old as the human race itself. It may be defined as relations between a man and a woman which is recognized by custom or law and involves certain rights and duties, both in the case of the parties entering the Union, and in case of the children born of it. Marriage has thus two main functions to perform: it is the means adopted by human society for regulating relations between the sexes; and it furnishes the mechanism by means of which the relations of a child to the community is determined.

The rites and ceremonies of marriage have been different with different peoples and in different ages but these two functions mentioned above are common throughout. It always implies the right of sexual intercourse as allowed and recognized by society and the duties of the parents in bringing up children.

Islam recognizes this institution and accepts it as the basis of human society after purging it of all those evils which had penetrated it.

Firstly, Islam does not regard it as a union only for the gratification of sexual lust, but a social contract with wide and varied responsibilities and duties. The reason behind it is that, according to the Divine Faith, a woman is not a plaything in the hand of man but a spiritual and moral being who is entrusted to him on the sacred pledge to which Allah is made a witness. The wife is, therefore, not meant to provide sensuous pleasure only to the male, but to fully co-operate with him in making the life of the family and ultimately of the whole humanity significantly meaningful.

The Holy Qur'an has in so many verses pointed out the different purposes of marriage. It states: "And of His signs is that He has created wives for you from yourselves that you might find quiet of wind in them, and He put between you love and affection" (xxx. 21). In this verse it has been said that the female is not inferior to the male in the sense that the former is created out of a superior stuff while the latter comes of a base origin. Both man and woman are the progeny of Adam and thus both have the same soul. The purpose of marriage, according to the Holy Qur'an, is therefore, the union of the two souls which are one in essence. Their separate existence is an unnatural state of their being which changes into the natural state when they are united by marriage and thus are brought close to each other physically, mentally and emotionally

Both man and woman are the joint heirs of the grace of life, and unless there is a very close and intimate form of companionship in them, they cannot enjoy the true grace of life. "He it is Who created you from a single soul, and of the same did He make his spouse, that he might find comfort in her" (vii. 189). "Comfort" implies much more than a mere sexual gratification. It is not too much to say that the whole conception of the marriage relation in Islam is charged with spiritual and moral ideas, and must of necessity elevate the status of matrimonial alliance in the individual and social life.

In Islam the union of the sexes has been purified and the joy of the married relation secured by the absolute prohibition of every kind of extra-matrimonial connection. The Holy Qur'an stresses upon the people to marry as it is the most effective means whereby one can lead a virtuous life free from immorality and emotional inhibition. The Holy Qur'an says: "They (your wives) are as a garment to you, and you are as a garment to them" (ii. 187). The mutual relation of husband and wife is here described in words which could not be surpassed in beauty. Herein is the correct description of the relationship between the two. The husband and the wife are for mutual support, mutual comfort and mutual protection, fitting into each other as garments fit into each other.

Then the Holy Qur'an also makes it clear that this union is not a temporary relationship between two individuals of opposite sexes: It is a permanent and enduring relationship in the sense that both the parties should put in their earnest endeavors to lead their lives in perfect harmony and acquitting themselves creditably of the responsibilities saddled upon them by entering into this sacred contract.

The Holy Qur'an further points out that sexual gratification in the married life is not meant only for the satisfaction of the physical lust, but it must be directed to some higher ends. "Your women are tilth for you, so go into your tilth as ye like, and provide beforehand for your souls, and fear Allah and know that you are going to meet Him" (iii. 223). Here the wives are likened to the cultivable land which are ploughed for sowing and reaping the produce (in the form of offspring) and not merely for carnal indulgence. The concluding part of the verse refers to still higher and sublime ends which tell that even in the height of carnal pleasures the moral and spiritual responsibilities should not in any way be lost sight of; rather one should be more conscious to them when one is enjoying physical pleasures as these are the moments when the fear of the Lord and the accountability in the Hereafter is likely to be blurred or effaced from one's mind.

The list of all chapters in this volume are given below.


List of chapters
ONE WHO CAN SUPPORT A WIFE SHOULD MARRY
HE WHO SEES A WOMAN, AND HIS HEART IS AFFECTED, SHOULD COME TO HIS WIFE, AND SHOULD HAVE INTERCOURSE WITH HER
TEMPORARY MARRIAGE AND ITS PROHIBITION FOR ALL TIMES TO COME
IT IS FORBIDDEN TO COMBINE A WOMAN AND HER FATHER'S SISTER, OR A WOMAN AND HER MOTHER'S SISTER TOGETHER IN MARRIAGE
MUHRIM (ONE WHO IS IN THE STATE OF IHRAM) IS FORBIDDEN TO MARRY AND THE DISAPPROVAL OF GIVING THE PROPOSAL (IN THIS STATE)
PROHIBITION OF ONE" S MAKING THE PROPOSAL OF MARRIAGE WHEN IT HAS ALREADY BEEN MADE BY ONE'S BROTHER UNTIL HE PERMITS OR GIVES HER UP
IT IS PROHIBITED TO CONTRACT SHIGHAR MARRIAGE
FULFILLING OF CONDITION IN MARRIAGE
SEEKING CONSENT OF AL-THAYYIBIN MARRIAGE IN WORDS AND OF A VIRGIN IN (MEANINGFUL) SILENCE
IT IS PERMISSIBLE FOR THE FATHER TO GIVE THE HAND OF HIS DAUGHTER IN MARRIAGE EVEN WHEN SHE IS NOT FULLY GROWN UP
EXCELLENCE OF MARRYING OR BEING MARRIED DURING THE MONTH OF SHAWWAL AND EXCELLENCE OF TAKING BRIDE IN THE HOUSE DURING THIS MONTH
IT IS PERMISSIBLE TO CAST A GLANCE AT THE FACE AND THE PALMS OF A WOMAN WHOM ONE INTENDS TO MARRY
THE DOWER
EXCELLENCE OF EXMANCIPATING A SLAVE-GIRL AND THEN MARRYING HER
PERTAINING TO THE MARRIAGE OF ZAINAB BINT JAHSH WITH THE HOLY PROPHET (MAY PEACE BE UPON HIM) AND VERSES PERTAINING TO PURDAH (VEIL)
WHEN ONE IS INVITED TO A WEDDING FEAST, ONE SHOULD ACCEPT IT
IT IS NOT PERMISSIBLE TO MARRY A WOMAN WHO IS DIVORCED BY THREE PRONOUNCEMENTS UNTIL SHE IS MARRIED TO ANOTHER MAN AND HE HAS A SEXUAL INTERCOURSE WITH HER, AND THEN HE ABANDONS HER AND SHE COMPLETES HER 'IDDA
WHAT IS TO BE SUPPLICATED AT THE TIME OF SEXUAL INTERCOURSE
PERMISSIBILITY OF HAVING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE WITH ONE'S WIFE FROM THE FRONT OR FROM BEHIND AVOIDING THE ANUS
IT IS NOT PERMISSIBLE FOR A WOMAN TO ABANDON THE BED OF HER HUSBAND
IT IS FORBIDDEN TO DIVULGE THE SECRET OF THE WOMAN
AL AZL (INCOMPLETE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE): COITUS INTERRUPTUS
IT IS FORBIDDEN TO HAVE INTERCOURSE WITH A PREGNANT SLAVE-WOMAN
PERMISSIBILITY OF INTERCOURSE WITH A SUCKLING LADY AND DISAPPROVAL OF 'AZL
KITAB AL-RADA'A-BOOK PERTAINING TO FOSTERAGE
IT IS FORBIDDEN TO MARRY THE STEP-DAUGHTER AND THE SISTER OF THE WIFE (WHEN WIFE IS ALIVE AND NOT DIVORCED)
ONE SUCKLING OR TWO DO NOT MAKE MARRIAGE UNLAWFUL
SUCKLING OF A YOUNG (BOY)
IT IS PERMISSIBLE TO HAVE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE WITH A CAPTIVE WOMAN AFTER SHE IS PURIFIED (OF MENSES OR DELIVERY) IN CASE SHE HAS A HUSBAND, HER MARRIAGE IS ABROGATED AFTER SHE BECOMES CAPTIVE
THE CHILD IS TO BE ATTRIBUTED TO ONE ON WHOSE BED IT IS BORN AND ONE MUST AVOID SUSPICION
TRACING OF RELATIONSHIP FROM PHYSICAL FEATURES
HOW LONG AFTER MARRYING ONE SHOULD STAY WITH A VIRGIN OR A WOMAN PREVIOUSLY MARRIED
SHARING VISITS TO ONE'S WIVES EQUALLY
PERMISSIBILITY OF BESTOWING THE TURN ON ONE'S FELLOW-WIFE
EXCELLENCE OF CONTRACTING MARRIAGE WITH A PIOUS LADY
EXCELLENCE OF MARRYING A VIRGIN
THE GOOD OF THIS WORLD IS THE PIOUS WOMAN
ADVICE IN REGARD TO WOMEN

Islamic Art Oil Paintings

List of Volumes
The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman)
The Book of Purification (Kitab Al-Taharah)
The Book of Menstruation (Kitab Al-Haid)
The Book of Prayers (Kitab Al-Salat)
The Book of Zakat (Kitab Al-Zakat)
The Book of Fasting (Kitab Al-Sawm)
The Book of Pilgrimage (Kitab Al-Hajj)
The Book of Marriage (Kitab Al-Nikah)
The Book of Divorce (Kitab Al-Talaq)
The Book of Transactions (Kitab Al-Buyu`)
The Book Pertaining to the Rules of Inheritance (Kitab Al-Farai`d)
The Book of Gifts (Kitab Al-Hibat)
The Book of Bequests (Kitab Al-Wasiyya)
The Book of Vows (Kitab Al-Nadhr)
The Book of Oaths (Kitab Al-Aiman)
The Book Pertaining to the Oath, for Establishing the Responsibility of Murders, Fighting, Requital and Blood-Wit (Kitab Al-Kitab Al-Qasama wa'l-Muharaba wa'l-Qisas wa'l-Diyat)
The Book Pertaining to Punishments Prescribed by Islam (Kitab Al-Hudud)
The Book Pertaining to Judicial Decisions (Kitab Al-Aqdiyya)
The Book of Jihad and Expedition (Kitab Al-Jihad wa'l-Siyar)
The Book on Government (Kitab Al-Imara)
The Book of Games and the Animals which May be Slaughtered and the Aninals that Are to be Eaten (Kitab-us-Said wa'l-Dhaba'ih wa ma Yu'kalu min Al-Hayawan)
The Book of Sacrifices (Kitab Al-Adahi)
The Book of Drinks (Kitab Al-Ashriba)
The Book Pertaining to Clothes and Decoration (Kitab Al-Libas wa'l-Zinah)
The Book on General Behaviour (Kitab Al-Adab)
The Book on Salutations and Greetings (Kitab As-Salam)
The Book Concerning the Use of Correct Words (Kitab Al-Alfaz min Al-Adab wa Ghairiha)
The Book of Poetry (Kitab Al-Sh`ir)
The Book of Vision (Kitab Al-Ruya)
The Book Pertaining to the Excellent Qualities of the Holy Prophet (may Peace be upon them) and His Companions (Kitab Al-Fada'il)
The Book Pertaining to the Merits of the Companions (Allah Be Pleased With Them) of the Holy Prophet (May Peace Be Upon Him) (Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahabah)
The Book of Virtue, Good Manners and Joining of the Ties of Relationship (Kitab Al-Birr was-Salat-I-wa'l-Adab)
The Book of Destiny (Kitab-ul-Qadr)
The Book of Knowledge (Kitab Al-`Ilm)
The Book Pertaining to the Remembrance of Allah, Supplication, Repentance and Seeking Forgiveness (Kitab Al-Dhikr)
The Book of Heart-Melting Traditions (Kitab Al-Riqaq)
The Book Pertaining to Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance (Kitab Al-Tauba)
Pertaining To The Charateristics Of The Hypocrites And Command Concerning Them (Kitab Sifat Al-Munafiqin Wa Ahkamihim)
The Book Giving Description of the Day of Judgement, Paradise and Hell (Kitab Sifat Al-Qiyamah wa'l Janna wa'n-Nar)
The Book Pertaining to Paradise, Its Description, Its Bounties and Its Intimates (Kitab Al-Jannat wa Sifat Na'imiha wa Ahliha)
The Book Pertaining to the Turmoil and Portents of the Last Hour (Kitab Al-Fitan wa Ashrat As-Sa`ah)
The Book Pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (Kitab Al-Zuhd wa Al-Raqa'iq)
The Book of Commentary (Kitab Al-Tafsir)
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