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Sahih Muslim

by Imam Muslim, translation by Abdul Hamid Siddiqui

Volume: The Book of Zakat (Kitab Al-Zakat)

Of the five fundamentals of Islam, Zakat occupies the second positioin, the first being prayer (salat). This word is derived from Zakd, which means it (a plant) grew. The second derivative of this word carries the sense of purificatin, e. g. Qad aflaha man zakkaha (he is indeed successful who purified himself). The other word used for zakat both in the Qur'an and the Hadith is sadaqa which is derived from sidq (the truth). Both these words are highly meaningful. The spending of wealth for the sake of Allah purifies the heart of man of the love of material wealth. The man who spends it offers that as a humble gift before the Lord and thus affirms the truth that nothing is dearer to him in life than the love of Allah and that he is full prepared to sacrifice everything for His sake. Secondly, zakat is the most effective measure to improve the economic condition of the have-nots. It is not, however, a mere tax, but a form of worship whereby a man comes close to his Lord. The Muslims have, therefore, been enjoined to pay zakat with the same sense of earnestness and devotion in which the seeker of the Lord observes the prayer. The primary motive of zakat is religious and spiritual, while the social and economic aspects are subservient to it. Its social significance is that it awakens in man the sense of brotherhood with less fortunate members of society, and stirs his moral conscience to make sacrifice for their sake. From the economic point of view it discourages hoarding and concentration of wealth and helps its steady and constant flow from the rich to the poor. It is in fact a good means of providing purchasing power to the poor, for ameliorating their hard lot and enabling them to stand on their own legs.

It should also be remembered that zakat or sadaqa in Islam is not a voluntary act of charity which a rich man gives to the poor out of his own sweet will, but it is an obligatory act which every Muslim is enjoined upon to perform if he is sincere in his belief in God and the Hereafter. Thus there is no burden of obligation on one who receives zakat, but a sense of thankfulness and gratitude on the part of the giver, since he has been enabled by the recipient to discharge his obligation that he owes to God and society.

(O Prophet), take sadaqa (zakat) out of their property-thou wouldst cleanse them and purify them thereby (Qur'an, ix. 103). And away from it (the Hell) shall be kept the most faithful to duty who gives his wealth, purifying himself (xcii. 17-18).

So much is the importance of zakat in Islam that it has been mentioned at eightytwo places in the Qur'an in close connection with prayer. The Companions of the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) knew its basic importance in Islam. It is a known fact that after the death of the Apostle of Allah (may peace he upon him) when some of the tribes, who believed in the oneness of God and observed prayer, refused to pay zakat, the first Caliph Abu Bakr Siddiq (Allah be pleased with him), in an answer to the advice of Hadrat 'Umar (Allah be pleased with him) to show tolerance towards such people. said in explicit terms, By Allah, I would definitely wage war against them who dissociate prayer from Zakat. Zakat is paid on the surplus of wealth which is left over after the passage of a year. It is thus a payment on the accumulated wealth. Leaving aside animals and agricultural yield, zakat is paid at almost a uniform rate of two and a half %. The minimum standard of surplus wealth over which zakat is charged is known as Nisab. It differs with different kinds of property, the most important being 200 dirhams or 521 tolas (nearly 21 oz.) In case of silver, and 20 mithqals or 71 tolas (nearly 3 oz.) in case of gold. The nisab of cash is the same as that of gold and silver.

As regards the persons to whom zakat is to be paid, they have been clearly described in the Holy Qur'an: Alms are only for the poor, the needy, the officials charged with the duty of collection, those whose hearts are inclined to truth, the ransoming of captives, those in debt, in the way of Allah, and the wayfarer (ix 60).

The list of all chapters in this volume are given below.


List of chapters
Chapter 1
NO ZAKAT IS DUE FROM A MUSLIM ON HIS SLAVE OR HIS HORSE
SENDING OFF FOR THE PAYMENT OF ZAKAT AND OF REFUSING TO PAY IT
ZAKAT (SADAQA) FITR IS BINDING ON EVERY MUSLIM
TAKING OUT OF SADAQAT-UL-FITR BEFORE OBSERVING FITR PRAYER
SIN OF ONE WHO DOES NOT PAY ZAKAT
PLEASING OF THE COLLECTOR
THE GRAVITY OF PUNISHMENT FOR ONE WHO DOES NOT PAY ZAKAT
EXHORTATION TO GIVE SADAQA
HOARDERS OF WEALTH AND PUNISHMENT TO THEM
EXHORTATION TO SPEND AND TIDINGS TO HIM WHO SPENDS (ON GOOD DEEDS)
EXCELLENCE OF SPENDING ON ONE'S FAMILY, AND SERVANT, AND SIN OF ONE WHO NEGLECTS OR WITHHOLDS THEIR SUBSISTENCE
BEGINNING OF SPENDING FOR ONE'S OWN SELF, THEN FOR ONE'S FAMILY AND THEN FOR RELATIVES
EXCELLENCE OF SPENDING AND GIVING SADAQA TO RELATIVES, TO WIFE, TO CHILDREN, AND PARENTS EVEN IF THEY ARE POLYTHEISTS
GETTING OF REWARD FOR SADAQA FOR THE DEAD GIVEN ON HIS OR HER BEHALF
SADAQA INCLUDES ALL TYPES OF GOOD ACTS
CONCERNING ONE WHO SPENDS AND WHO WITHHOLDS
ACCEPTANCE OF SADAQA BY HONEST WORK AND ITS GROWTH
EXHORTATION TO SADAQA EVEN THOUGH IT IS HALF A DATE, OR A GOOD WORD, FOR THEY ARE PROTECTION AGAINST FIRE
THE LABOURER SHOULD GIVE CHARITY OUT OF HIS WAGES AND IT IS SEVERELY FORBIDDEN TO BELITTLE ONE WHO CONTRIBUTES LESS
EXCELLENCE OF GIVING A GIFT
THE LIKENESS OF ONE WHO SPENDS (IN THE PATH OF ALLAH) AND ONE WHO WITHHOLDS
PROOF OF REWARD FOR THE GIVER OF CHARITY EVEN IF IT GOES INTO THE HANDS OF AN UNDESERVING PERSON
THE REWARD FOR AN HONEST TRUSTEE AND FOR THE WOMAN AS SHE GIVES CHARITY FROM THE HOUSEHOLD OF HER HUSBAND EITHER WITH HIS EXPLICIT SANCTION OR AS IT IS CUSTOMARY
CONCERNING THE COLLECTION OF SADAQA AND DOING OF GOOD DEEDS
EXHORTATION TO SPEND (FOR THE SAKE OF ALLAH) AND DISAPPROVAL OF CALCULATING (THE ARTICLES OF CHARITY)
EXHORTATION TO GIVE CHARITY EVEN THOUGH IT IS SMALL (THE ONE WHO GIVES) SMALL AMOUNT SHOULD NEITHER BE DISCOURAGED NOR LOOKED DOWN UPON
EXCELLENCE OF GIVING SADAQA SECRETLY
THE MOST EXCELI, ENT SADAQA IS THAT WHICH IS GIVEN WHEN ONE IS HEALTHY AND CLOSE-FISTED
CONCERNING THE STATEMENT THAT THE UPPER HAND IS BETTER THAN, THE LOWER HAND, AND THE UPPER HAND IS THAT WHICH GIVES AND THE LOWER ONE IS THAT WHICH RECEIVES
IT IS FORBIDDEN TO BEG
MISKIN (POOR MAN) IS ONE WHO DOES NOT FIND ENOUGH TO SATISFY HIM AND THE PROPLR DO NOT CONSIDER HIM (NEEDY) AS TO GIVE HIM CHARITY
DISAPPROVAL OF BEGGING FROM PEOPLE
ONE FOR WHOM BEGGING IS PERMISSIBLE
PERMISSIBILITY TO ACCEPT WHAT IS GIVEN WITHOUT BEGGING, OR WITHOUT BEING AVARICIOUS
DISAPPROVAL OF THE LONGING FOR THE (POSSESSIONS OF THE MATERIAL) WORLD
IF THERE WERE TWO VALLEYS (OF GOLD) FOR THE SON OF ADAM, HE WOULD LONG FOR THE THIRD ONE
ONE IS NOT RICH BECAUSE OF THE ABUNDANCE OF GOODS
FEAR OF WHAT WOULD COME OUR OF THE ADORNMENT OF THE WORLD
EXCELLENCE OF ABSTAINING FROM BEGGING AND THAT OF ENDURANCE
GIVING CHARITY TO ONE WHO BEGGED IMPORTUNATELY OR WITH UNCIVILITY
BESTOWAL UPON ONE WHO IS NOT FIRM IN FAITH
BESTOWAL UPON THOSE WHO ARE MADE TO INCLINE (TO TRUTH)
THE KHWARIJ AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS
EXHORTATION TO KILL THE KHWARIJ
IT'IS FORBIDDEN TO PAY ZAKAT TO THE MESSENGER OF ALLAH (MAY PEACE BE UPON HIM) AND BANU HASHIM AND BANU MUTTALIB
THE POSTERITY OF THE HOLY PROPHET (MAY PEACE BE UPON HIM) IS NOT ALLOWED TO MAKE USE OF SADAQA
ACCEPTING OF GIFT BY THE HOLY PROPHET (MAY PEACE BE UPON HIM) AND REFUSING THE SADAQA
BLESSING FOR HIM WHO PRESENTS SADAQA
TO PLEASE THE COLLECTOR OF ZAKAT, UNLESS HE MAKES AN UNJUST DEMAND

Islamic Art Oil Paintings

List of Volumes
The Book of Faith (Kitab Al-Iman)
The Book of Purification (Kitab Al-Taharah)
The Book of Menstruation (Kitab Al-Haid)
The Book of Prayers (Kitab Al-Salat)
The Book of Zakat (Kitab Al-Zakat)
The Book of Fasting (Kitab Al-Sawm)
The Book of Pilgrimage (Kitab Al-Hajj)
The Book of Marriage (Kitab Al-Nikah)
The Book of Divorce (Kitab Al-Talaq)
The Book of Transactions (Kitab Al-Buyu`)
The Book Pertaining to the Rules of Inheritance (Kitab Al-Farai`d)
The Book of Gifts (Kitab Al-Hibat)
The Book of Bequests (Kitab Al-Wasiyya)
The Book of Vows (Kitab Al-Nadhr)
The Book of Oaths (Kitab Al-Aiman)
The Book Pertaining to the Oath, for Establishing the Responsibility of Murders, Fighting, Requital and Blood-Wit (Kitab Al-Kitab Al-Qasama wa'l-Muharaba wa'l-Qisas wa'l-Diyat)
The Book Pertaining to Punishments Prescribed by Islam (Kitab Al-Hudud)
The Book Pertaining to Judicial Decisions (Kitab Al-Aqdiyya)
The Book of Jihad and Expedition (Kitab Al-Jihad wa'l-Siyar)
The Book on Government (Kitab Al-Imara)
The Book of Games and the Animals which May be Slaughtered and the Aninals that Are to be Eaten (Kitab-us-Said wa'l-Dhaba'ih wa ma Yu'kalu min Al-Hayawan)
The Book of Sacrifices (Kitab Al-Adahi)
The Book of Drinks (Kitab Al-Ashriba)
The Book Pertaining to Clothes and Decoration (Kitab Al-Libas wa'l-Zinah)
The Book on General Behaviour (Kitab Al-Adab)
The Book on Salutations and Greetings (Kitab As-Salam)
The Book Concerning the Use of Correct Words (Kitab Al-Alfaz min Al-Adab wa Ghairiha)
The Book of Poetry (Kitab Al-Sh`ir)
The Book of Vision (Kitab Al-Ruya)
The Book Pertaining to the Excellent Qualities of the Holy Prophet (may Peace be upon them) and His Companions (Kitab Al-Fada'il)
The Book Pertaining to the Merits of the Companions (Allah Be Pleased With Them) of the Holy Prophet (May Peace Be Upon Him) (Kitab Al-Fada'il Al-Sahabah)
The Book of Virtue, Good Manners and Joining of the Ties of Relationship (Kitab Al-Birr was-Salat-I-wa'l-Adab)
The Book of Destiny (Kitab-ul-Qadr)
The Book of Knowledge (Kitab Al-`Ilm)
The Book Pertaining to the Remembrance of Allah, Supplication, Repentance and Seeking Forgiveness (Kitab Al-Dhikr)
The Book of Heart-Melting Traditions (Kitab Al-Riqaq)
The Book Pertaining to Repentance and Exhortation to Repentance (Kitab Al-Tauba)
Pertaining To The Charateristics Of The Hypocrites And Command Concerning Them (Kitab Sifat Al-Munafiqin Wa Ahkamihim)
The Book Giving Description of the Day of Judgement, Paradise and Hell (Kitab Sifat Al-Qiyamah wa'l Janna wa'n-Nar)
The Book Pertaining to Paradise, Its Description, Its Bounties and Its Intimates (Kitab Al-Jannat wa Sifat Na'imiha wa Ahliha)
The Book Pertaining to the Turmoil and Portents of the Last Hour (Kitab Al-Fitan wa Ashrat As-Sa`ah)
The Book Pertaining to Piety and Softening of Hearts (Kitab Al-Zuhd wa Al-Raqa'iq)
The Book of Commentary (Kitab Al-Tafsir)
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